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Jiles Halling's Blog

Jiles spent 10 years living and working in Champagne working for Moet et Chandon.

During that time, Jiles built up a vast amout of knowledge about all things bubbly, making lots of contacts in the region, and getting to know the people who've lived there for centuries while crafting their products with love and passion.

After moving back to the UK in late 2004, Jiles decided to bring this unique knowledge and contribution to the wider world.  The hidden secrets, the best champagnes and the insider knowledge that is not usually available through the normal channels, is now here for you.  Since March 2010, Jiles is once again based in Champagne, living in the small grand cru village of Verzy.

In this you'll find everything you ever wanted to know about champagne, the drink, the people, the region and the food.  Please enjoy your visit and please join in the conversation by leaving your thoughts in the comments section or liking us on Facebook.


 

Creating a private brand of champagne can be great fun – and of course enjoying the results is enjoyable too – but like many projects, it is complex and requires careful management. Here are just some of the questions that need to be answered – the list is not exhaustive!

Fortunately, you don’t need to worry about most of these because I can guide you through all 35 questions and more. Nevertheless, the questions will probably highlight plenty of issues we will need to consider.

The Champagne (what level of knowledge do you have about champagne?)

  1. What kind of champagne maker do you want to work with: NM, RM or CM?
  2. Do you understand the difference between these three?
  3. What type of champagne are you looking for: Blanc de Blancs, Blanc de Noirs, a blend, rosé champagne, vintage champagne…?
  4. How many bottles will you need this year and in 5 years’ time?

The name and design (how advanced and detailed are your plans for the brand identity?)

  1. Have you already designed a logo, a colour scheme and a visual identity the for the brand?
  2. Do you have in mind a name for your brand?
  3. Have you done any research into the name to ensure that it is not already registered?
  4. Is your preferred name likely to be approved by the regulatory body in Champagne?

The corks

  1. Which quality of cork do you require - there are at least 4 different grades?
  2. Do you want a generic cork or a branded cork?
  3. Do you want branding on the top, sides or bottom of the cork?

The plaque and wire

  1. What colour capsule?
  2. Do you want branding on the capsule?
  3. If so, a logo or text?
  4. Will the text fit in the available space?
  5. What colour wire do you want?

The foil

  1. What length of foil?
  2. What colour of foil?
  3. What finish to the foil: matt, polished, textured? ( there are dozens of possibilities)
  4. What weight of foil? (a heavier material may feel more prestigious but is more expensive)
  5. Do you want an easy-open tab or not?
  6. Do you want branding printed on the foil?
  7. In which language?

 

The label

  1. What size and shape label?
  2. Will your preferred size and shape fit on the champagne maker’s labelling machine?
  3. Have you already had a label design created?
  4. What colour, type and quality of paper?
  5. What type of printing?
  6. How many colours need to be printed?
  7. Is gold foil or other metallic printing involved
  8. Do you need a back label? (the answer is probably, Yes)
  9. Do you want a different type of label – metal for example?

The bottle

  1. What colour glass? (Green is the most common, but other colours are possible)
  2. Do you require a standard, or special, bottle shape?
  3. Would you consider a plastic sleeve on the bottle to achieve the effect you want?

To find out more and to discuss an idea you have in mind please contact me at

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A glass half empty, or a glass half full?

Despite a fall in shipment volume, champagne is in good shape.


Glass half empry, or glass half full?Official figures for champagne shipments in 2018 will not be released until March but initial reports are that total shipments fell from 307 million bottles in 2017 (25.6 million 9 litre cases) to around 302 million in 2018 ( 25.2 million 9 litre cases).


A fall of 5 million bottles, or 1.5%, is not what you would wish for, but look beyond the headlines and there’s a different story playing out - champagne is in better shape than the headlines imply.


1) From volume to value

Much of the decline in 2018 is in champagne’s two largest markets by volume: France and the U.K.

Both have been on the slide for several years but in France matters were made worse by the ‘Gilet Jaunes’ disturbances during the crucial Christmas selling period that affected both the national mood and the physical distribution of goods.

In the U.K., sales have not been helped by uncertainty surrounding Brexit, although the U.K. remains the largest export market for champagne in terms of volume.

France is a low value market. Consumers have easy access to a whole host of inexpensive brands never seen outside France, and are accustomed to a wide choice of undifferentiated brands at low prices.

The U.K. is heavily influenced by supermarket brands that are sold in huge volumes, but usually at very attractive promotional prices.
But if the decline in these two markets is offset by increases in higher value markets, then perhaps the trend is favourable for the long-term health of champagne.

2) High value markets

While we wait for the 2018 shipment figures, we can infer a few things from the past couple of years.

In 2015 the US market overtook the UK as the highest value export market and in volume terms too, it continues to grow strongly. Shipments in 2017 were up 8.5% y.o.y. to reach 23 million bottles (1.9 million 9 litre cases) and 585 million euros in value: roughly €25 per bottle.

In contrast, the average per bottle value in France is just under €14 and in the U.K. it’s just under €15.
Other markets are growing not just in volume but, perhaps more importantly, in value too: Japan (average value per bottle €24 ), China (€21). South Africa (€23) Nigeria (€29) and Canada (€24)

In fact, the final figures could well show that 2018 was a record year for champagne in terms of value.

Not too shabby and certainly not a cause for undue pessimism

 

 

Phylloxera-sign-3-300I came across this sign recently when I passed through the village of Villers-Marmery and it prompted me to do a little research into what happened in Champagne a century and more ago when phylloxera devasted the vineyards.


It’s been such a long time since the phylloxera catastrophe ( no that’s not too strong a word) laid waste the vineyards not just in France but across the whole of Europe that many people these days have never even heard the word  let alone know what it means.
Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae  to give it its scientific name – it is also known as Phylloxéra vastatrix) is a small insect that attacks the roots of vines and eventually so weakens the plant that it dies.

Phylloxera-sign-1-300It is believed that the bug somehow made its way across the Atlantic Ocean from the USA, possibly in a consignment of timber or some other wooden product. The insect was first notice in France in 1868 in the Languedoc and from there it spread across pretty much the entire country and into other countries. Its effects were disastrous; it destroyed huge swathes of vineyard and there was very little that the vignerons could do to stop it.


Throughout the 1870s the Champagne vineyards were not affected and the champenois must have hoped that they would somehow escape the ravages of phylloxera, but in 1880 the first sighting of the bug was confirmed in the village of Chassins-Trélou in La Vallee de la Marne. From there it spread in 1882 to Le-Mesnil-sur-Oger in la Côte des Blancs and the following year it arrived in the vineyards of Epernay and eventually was spotted in La Montagne de Reims in 1904.


To give you some idea of the progress of the pest 14 hectares in Champagne were infected in 1897, by 1900 the count was 600 hectares; two years later it was 2,000 hectares, 5,000 in 1907 and by the time the First World War broke out 6,500 hectares of vineyards in Champagne had been destroyed. It’s worth pointing out also that in those days there were only 12,000 hectares of vines planted in the whole of Champagne, so over half the region’s vines were ruined.


It was in the 1890s that the vignerons organised themselves in associations to try to figure out way to combat the infestation and the sign in the picture at the top of the page presumably dates back to that period.


As early as 1879 even before phylloxera was established in Champagne a committee  was set up to coordinate the fight against the pest. The majority of 26,000 registered vine growers, large and small,  joined the committee but in a sad turn of events the committee was disbanded because the vine growers suspected the large négociants of exploiting the situation to buy up, at knock-down prices, the vineyards that had been affected by phylloxera. Perhaps the collapse of the committee was predictable and inevitable given the tenor of the times. There was huge suspicion of the négociants which culminated not many years later in the riots in Aÿ in 1911.


A series of cool years at the end of the 19th century slowed down the onward march of phylloxera and perhaps people thought they would get off lightly, but when the spread of the bug resumed the vignerons found that there was no way of stopping the insects. They tried flooding the vineyards to drown them; they tried burning the vineyards, but equally to no effect. The method most widely tried was to treat the vines with carbon disulphide by injecting it into the soil with giant copper syringes. Unfortunately this was a case of the treatment being almost as bad as, or worse than, the disease itself. Carbon disulphide is highly toxic and highly inflammable too and definitely not something you want to go spreading in the soil, moreover it didn’t work either.


Fort-Chabrol-300The search for an effective treatment went on vigorously not least in the research centre set up by Raoul Chandon de Briailles in Fort Chabrol near Epernay. Eventually it was realised that American vines,  Vitis riparia or Vitis rupestris ,were immune, or at least resistant, to the predations of phlloxera and that by grafting  French vines Vitis vinifera  onto the American root stocks one could retain the characteristics of the European vines on a plant that would not succumb to phylloxera.


This then was the news for which everyone had been waiting  for 40 years and a programme of replanting was soon undertaken, although it was interrupted by the First World War. Little by little between 1900 and 1938 the native vines were dug up and replaced by grafts using the American stocks until, on the eve of the Second World War, there were just 95 hectares of native vines remaining.


Vignes-en-foule-300One good thing did come out of this terrible episode. Until the arrival of phylloxera vines grew very much at random (en foule –  ‘in a crowd’ - as the method is called). The new vines were planted in rows as we see them nowadays. This allowed animals and later tractors to work the vineyards which did a great deal to make the life of a vineyard worker a lot easier.
They say that every cloud has a silver lining, but for the vignerons in Champagne it must has been hard to see it back in the early years of the 19th century. 

 

Source material: article by Bruno Duteutre in Bulles et Millésimes http://www.champagne-news.com/1890-le-phylloxera-arrive-en-champagne/

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